5.1. Features of a design

Fig. 5.1. Longitudinal section of the VAZ-21126 engine: 1 – oil pump; 2 – generator drive pulley; 3 – rod; 4 – piston finger; 5 – belt of the drive of the gas-distributing mechanism; 6 – cover of the gas-distributing mechanism; 7 – camshaft pulley; 8 – inlet collector; 9 – candle well; 10 – cover of an oil-filling mouth; 11 – thermostat; 12 – flywheel; 13 – nozzle of cooling of the bottom of the piston; 14 – oil receiver; 15 – bent shaft

Install the VAZ-21126 engine (fig. 5.1, 5.2) created on the basis of the VAZ-2112 engine on the VAZ-2170 Lada Priora car. Increase in engine capacity of fashion. 21126 to 1,6 l in comparison with the working volume of fashion. 2112 is reached due to increase in a piston stroke with an invariable diameter of the cylinder.

Fig. 5.2. Cross-section of the VAZ-21126 engine: 1 – stopper of a drain opening; 2 – oil case; 3 – oil filter; 4 – water pump; 5 – katkollektor; 6 – final valve; 7 – valve spring; 8 – camshaft of final valves; 9 – inlet collector; 10 – cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 11 – camshaft of inlet valves; 12 – hydraulic pusher of the valve; 13 – case of bearings of camshafts; 14 – fuel stage; 15 – nozzle; 16 – the directing valve plug; 17 – inlet valve; 18 – laying of a head of the block of cylinders; 19 – compression rings; 20 – oil scraper ring; 21 – piston finger; 22 – rod; 23 – block of cylinders; 24 – rod cover; 25 – oil receiver


The block of cylinders is cast from special high-strength cast iron that gives to an engine design rigidity and durability.
The channels for cooling liquid forming a cooling shirt are executed on all height of the block, it improves cooling of pistons and reduces deformation of the block from an uneven overheat. The shirt of cooling is open in the top part towards a block head. In the lower part of the block of cylinders five support of radical bearings of a bent shaft which covers are attached by bolts are located. In support the thin-walled steel-aluminum inserts performing function of bearings of a bent shaft are established. In an average support pro-points into which the persistent half rings holding a bent shaft from axial movements are inserted are executed.
In comparison with the block of cylinders of the engine of fashion. 2112 block of cylinders of fashion. 21126 is 2,3 mm higher, height from an axis of beds of radical bearings to the top surface of the block makes 197,1 mm.

The bent shaft is cast from special high-strength cast iron. Radical and conrod necks of a shaft of a proshlifovana. For lubricant of connecting rods in cranked to a shaft the oil channels closed by caps are drilled. For reduction of vibration eight counterbalances located on cranked to a shaft serve. Radius of a crank of a bent shaft of the engine of fashion. 21126 by 2,3 mm are more, than at the engine of fashion. 2112 at the expense of what the piston stroke increased from 71 to 75,6 mm. For distinction of shaft on one of counterbalances of a bent shaft of the VAZ-21126 engine marking "11183" is cast.
On the forward end of a bent shaft the oil pump, the cogged pulley of a belt of the drive of camshafts and a pulley of the drive of the generator with the built-in damper of tortional fluctuations are installed. On the back end of a bent shaft the flywheel cast from cast iron is located. On a flywheel напрессован a steel gear rim.

Rods steel, shod, with covers on the lower heads. Covers of rods are made by a separation method from an integral rod. It reaches higher precision of installation of a cover on a rod. In the lower head of a rod thin-walled inserts are established, in the top head the stalebronzovy plug is pressed.

Pistons are cast from aluminum alloy. On each of them three rings are established: two top compression and the lower oil scraper. The bottom of pistons flat, with four deepenings under valves, and on pistons of the engine of fashion. 21126 deepenings are increased in comparison with deepenings of the engine 2112. Pistons are cooled with oil for what in support of radical bearings special nozzles are established. They represent tubes in which there are sprung balls. In operating time of the engine balls open openings in tubes and the stream of oil gets on the piston from below.
In the engine of fashion. 21126 the set "the piston – piston rings – a piston finger rod" the reduced weight is applied (the mass of the piston is reduced from 350 to 235 g, a piston finger — from 113 to 65 g, a rod — from 707 to 485 g, all set — for 32%).

The oil case steel, stamped, is attached by bolts to the block of cylinders from below.

The block head installed from above on the block of cylinders is cast from aluminum alloy. In the lower part of a head channels on which the liquid cooling combustion chambers circulates are cast. In the top part of a head two camshafts are installed: one for inlet valves, another — for final. Head of the block of cylinders of the engine of fashion. 21126 differs from a head of fashion. 2112 increased by the area of flanges under the inlet pipeline and the glasses of candle wells executed for a single whole with a block head.

Camshafts are installed in the support executed in the top part of a head of the block, and in one general case of bearings fixed by bolts on a block head. Camshafts are cast from cast iron. Pulleys of camshafts of the engine 21126 differ from engine 2112 pulleys in the tags of installation of phases of gas distribution displaced on 2 °.
For wear reduction working surfaces of cams and a surface under a termoobrabotana epiploon — are bleached. Cams of camshafts through pushers put valves in action. The engine 21126 is equipped with hydropushers of valves which automatically compensate gaps in the drive of valves. At this engine it is in use not necessary to regulate gaps in the valvate mechanism. In the engine on four valves on the cylinder: two inlet and two final.
The directing plugs and saddles of valves are pressed in a block head. The directing plugs, besides, are supplied with the lock rings keeping them from drop-out. The oil scraper caps reducing hit of oil in cylinders are installed on the directing plugs.
On each valve about one spring is established. Camshafts are put in action by a rubber gear belt from a bent shaft.

The cover of a head of the block of cylinders is made of aluminum. The cover joint with a head of the block of cylinders is condensed with laying. The cover of a head of the block of cylinders of the engine 21126 differs from a cover of 2112 in lack of the platform for fastening of the module of ignition and existence of openings for fastening of individual coils of ignition near candle wells.

Engine lubrication system combined: spraying and under pressure. Under pressure radical and conrod bearings, support of camshafts are greased. The system consists of an oil case, the gear oil pump with an oil receiver, a full-line oil filter, the sensor of pressure of oil and oil channels.

The cooling system of the engine consists of a shirt of cooling, a radiator with the electric fan, the centrifugal water pump, the thermostat, a broad tank and hoses.
The power supply system includes the electric fuel pump installed in the fuel tank, throttle knot, the filter of thin purification of fuel, the regulator of pressure of fuel, a nozzle, fuel hoses. Differences of elements of a power supply system of the engine of fashion. 21126 from the engine of fashion. 2112:
– the fuel stage of a tubular form without the return discharge of fuel is made of stainless steel instead of aluminum alloy;
– fuel nozzles of the reduced size are not interchanged with former;
– the regulator of pressure of fuel of the changed design is installed in the module of the fuel pump, but not on a fuel stage;
– in throttle knot there is no opening connecting the airbringing sleeve to the admission module bypassing a butterfly valve. The configuration of a flange of throttle knot is changed.
The system of catching of vapors of fuel with a coal adsorber functionally enters a power supply system (see. "Replacement of knots of system of catching of vapors of fuel") preventing an exit of vapors of fuel in the atmosphere.

The system of ignition consists of the individual coils of ignition installed on a cover of a head of the block of cylinders, and spark plugs. The electronic control unit (ECU) the engine operates ignition coils. Installation of individual coils of ignition instead of the module of ignition of the engine of fashion. 2112 allowed to refuse high-voltage wires of ignition and to improve technical characteristics and reliability of system.

System of ventilation of a case

Fig. 5.3. System of ventilation of a case of the engine: 1 – inlet collector; 2 – throttle knot; 3 – hose of a small contour of system of ventilation; 4 – the airbringing sleeve; 5 – hose of a big contour of system of ventilation; 6 – cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 7 – exhaust hose; 8 – separator; 9 – maslootrazhatel of a separator
the engine closed, with removal of crankcase gases through a separator of 8 (fig. 5.3) of the oil separator established in a cover of the 6th head of the block of cylinders in an inlet pipe. Further crankcase gases go to engine cylinders where burn down. During the operation of the engine on the idling mode crankcase gases arrive on a hose 3 small contours through the calibrated opening (jet) in the case of throttle knot. On this mode in an inlet pipe high depression is created and crankcase gases are effectively sucked away in zadrosselny space. The jet limits the volume of the sucked-away gases that operation of the engine idling was not broken. During the operation of the engine under loading when the butterfly valve partially or is completely open, the main volume of gases passes on a hose of the 5th big contour in the airbringing sleeve 4 before throttle knot and further in an inlet collector and combustion chambers.